Propolis is a resin collected by the honey bee from trees and plants. It is taken back to the hive where it is worked on and wax is added. Propolis is used in the hive for a variety of defensive and protective purposes. Propolis has antibacterial, anti inflammatory and antifungal properties. It has been used as a medicine by man for 3000 years. The largest single ingredient of Propolis (just over half) is resin collected from plants and trees (particularly the poplar tree). The other half is made up of wax (30%), essential oils (10%) and pollen (5%). You also find, in Propolis, a wide variety of additional elements including organic and amino acids, vitamins, minerals and most importantly bioflavonoids, now believed to be an active ingredient in the healing process. All of these ingredients are worked on and mixed with the bees’ own salivary secretions to produce what has been called Bee Glue, that is, Propolis. Propolis is a sticky filler substance, which the bees use to seal up the hive, protecting it from the outside environment. The bees also coat the entire inside surface of the hive with Propolis, polishing it to create one of the most sterile environments known to nature. As well as producing a purely functional role in sealing and reinforcing the hive, Propolis also performs the role of immune system for the hive, acting as a combined antibiotic, antiviral and antifungal substance.